BRUNEI

GENEALOGY

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Some versions of the Syair Awang Semaun trace the foundation of Brunei to fourteen saudara (brothers and first cousins). Other versions say they were all sons of Dewa Amas of Kayangan, a supernatural being who fell to earth in an egg at Ulu Limbang, and fathered them by fourteen different aboriginal wives:
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[1363 - 1402]#1 Paduka Sri Sultan Muhammad Shah, Sultan of Brunei, a younger son of Dewa Amas of Kayangan, by an aboriginal lady. He was chosen by the saudara to become the first ruler. Constructed his palace at Pirasung. He supposedly journeyed to Johor and received confirmation as ruler and was invested with the title of Paduka Sri Sultan Muhammad Shah by the Johor Sultan. m. [ca. 1365,] Dayang Sri Alam#2, a lady from Johor. He [d. 1402, having] had issue, a son a one daughter:
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[1402 - 1406] Paduka Sri Sultan 'Abdu'l Majid ibni Hassan ibni al-Marhum Sultan Muhammad Shah, Sultan of Brunei, son of Pangiran Muda Hassan ibni al-Marhum Sultan Muhammad Shah, Sultan of Brunei, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his grandfather as a minor [1402]. Reigned under the regency of his uncle. He [d. 1406, having] had issue, a daughter:
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[1406 - 1425] Paduka Sri Sultan Ahmad, Sultan of Brunei, eldest son of Dewa Amas of Kayangan, by an aboriginal lady. The first of the saudara to discover Brunei and to move there from Sundar/Garang. Supposedly granted the title of Paduka Sri Pangiran Bendahara Sri Maharaja Permaisuara by the Sultan of Johor [ca. 1363]. Became Regent for his young nephew [1402]. Succeeded on the death of his nephew [1406]. He was the first to call his kingdom Brunei. m. Putri Kinabatangan, younger sister of Pangiran Maharaja Laila Sahib ul-Kahar Ung Sunting [Ong Sum Ping]. He [d. 1425], having had issue:
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[1425 - 1433] Paduka Sri Sultan Sharif 'Ali Berkat (=the blessed), Sultan of Brunei Dar us-Salam, son of Sharif Muqaddam bin Sharif 'Ali Bilfaqih, from Taif in Arabia, descendant of the Prophet Muhammad through Sharifa Fatima and her son Hassan. He was the first to call his kingdom Brunei Dar us-Salam. Succeeded on the death of his father-in-law, 1425 and reigned probably only 8 years. He constructed the first mosque and the stone fort 'Kota Batu' east of Bandar Seri Begawan, introduced the system of flags and the Bongkok sword. m. Putri Ratna Kusuma, daughter of Paduka Sri Sultan Ahmad, Sultan of Brunei Dar us-Salam. He d. [1433#3] having had issue:
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[1433] - 1513 Paduka Sri Sultan Sulaiman ibni al-Marhum Sultan Sharif 'Ali Berkat, Sultan of Brunei Dar us-Salam, son of Paduka Sri Sultan Sharif 'Ali Berkat, Sultan of Brunei Dar us-Salam#4, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his father [1433]. Also sometimes styled Adipati Agung and Sang Aji, the traditional Hindu title for Brunei rulers. Abdicated in favour of his son [in 1485]. He d. before 19th March 1513 (bur. at the Royal Mausoleum, Jalan Khutbah Makam di-Raja), having had issue, a son:
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1513 - 1533 H.H. Sri Paduka Baginda Sultan Bolkiah Shah Alam ibni al-Marhum Sultan Sulaiman, Sultan and Yang di-Pertuan of Brunei Dar us-Salam. b. ca. 1481, son of Paduka Sri Sultan Sulaiman ibni al-Marhum Sultan Sharif 'Ali Berkat, Sultan of Brunei Dar us-Salam#5, educ. Java. In his reign Brunei became a great Imperial power in the region and extended its influence over large parts of Borneo and the Philippines, including the sultanates of Sulu and Maguindanao. Crowned before 19th March 1513. m. (first) a daughter of Datu Gamban, of Seluang, in Sulu. m. (second) Putri Laila Menjanai (bur. at the Kiangi, above the Upas), daughter of Sultan Nasuran, and granddaughter of Paduka Maulana Maha Sri Sultan Sharif al-Hashim 'Abu Bakar bin Sharif Zainal-Abidn, Sultan of Sulu. He d. 1533 #6 (bur. Sultan Bolkiah Mausoleum, Kota Batu), having had issue:
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1533 - 1578  H.H. Paduka Sri Sultan 'Abdu'l Kahar Jalil ul-Alam ibni al-Marhum Sultan Bolkiah Shah Alam [al-Marhum Kramat], Sultan and Yang di-Pertuan of Brunei Dar us-Salam. b. ca. 1513, eldest son of H.H. Paduka Sri Baginda Sultan Bolkiah Shah Alam ibni al-Marhum Sultan Sulaiman, Sultan and Yang di-Pertuan of Brunei Dar us-Salam, educ. privately. Appointed as Regent with the title of Sultan Muda 'Abdu'l Kahar Jalil ul-Alam. Succeeded on the death of his father, and crowned as Paduka Sri Sultan 'Abdu'l Kahar Jalil ul-Alam. The Portuguese established a permanent trading post at Brunei in 1526. He abdicated in favour of his son and thereafter ruled as regent with the title of Paduka Sri Begawan Sultan. A pious religious man endowed with supernatural powers. m. (first) before 1524, a princess from a 'country beneath the sea. m. (second) a Javanese lady. m. (second) a daughter of the Bajau penghulu, in Sabah. He d. at Baram, August 1578 (bur. at the Royal Mausoleum, Jalan Khutbah Makam di-Raja), having had issue, forty-two sons, including:
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Notes:
#1 The dates given in perenthesis before this point are those in the official history, but they cannot be verified and are all contradicted by contemporary Chinese and Western sources.
#2 Dayang does not suggest a Johor princess, since this title is used for a married aristocratic lady from Borneo or the Philippines. In a very slightly different form, the title could also refer to a Bugis princess or noblewoman. As such, the title does not appear in any Johor records until much later in the eighteenth century.
#3 The Brunei authorities, having recently discovered a tombstone engraved with the date Wednesday 28th Jamadi ul-Awal 836AH (or 30th January 1433), have assigned it Sultan 'Ali Berkat. Alas, the gravestone does not indicate any such association either with a person of that name or with a ruler of any kind.
#4 The Spanish invaders of 1578 mention that this sultan was a direct descendant of a Malay ruler originally from "Cauin" (same as Geying or Ko-ying?), entitled Sultan Yusuf by his Chinese wife. He reigned 300 years before the Spanish conquest, visited China and received robes of investment by the Chinese Emperor. This Sultan does not find mention in either the Syair Awang Semaun or the Silsilah Raja-Raja Brunei. Sultan Saif ul-Rijal apparently threw the gold inscribed tablet recording the genealogy overboard when trying to outrun his pusuers. Nevertheless, the Spanish officials were able to interview some of his officials, servants and relatives, and to establish this limited genealogy. It should be noted that neither the Spanish account nor the Syair Awang Semaun mention Sayyid 'Ali Berkat either as a Sultan or as an ancestor of the Royal line.
#5 The relationship given here conforms to the official version as well as the Spanish sources of 1578. However, the official version also confuses Sultan Bolkiah with Nakhoda Ragam (the "singing captain"). Several known versions of the Syair Awang Semaun suggest a very different parentage for the latter. Nakhoda Ragam's father is given as Damang Libar Dawn or Juru Shahbandar, who migrated to Java, married a Javanese wife by whom he fathered Nakhoda Ragam and his sister Palingkam Kahaya. Indeed, the tale of Nakhoda Ragam appears throughout the archipelago, and appears in several literary and poetical works. Alas, none but those in Brunei identify him as a Sultan of Brunei. Damang Libar Dawn (or Demang Lebar Daun), is of course, the legendary ruler of Palembang from whom the Malacca-Johor and most Malay Royal houses claim descent. Copyrightę Christopher Buyers
#6 The Brunei authorities, having recently discovered a tombstone marked with the date 25th Rajab 939 AH (or 20th February 1533), speculate and  assign it to a former sultan. However, the gravestone does not include either a name or any indication that the person buried there was a Sultan.
#7 Spanish sources mention this sultan and his line of descent as - Sultan Nula Alam (Nur ul-Alam) or Lixar (Rijal), son of Sultan Aril Lula (Jalil ul-Alam), son of Sultan Salan (Shah Alam), son of Sultan Sulaiman. The last, a direct descendant of a Malay ruler originally from "Cauin", and entitled Sultan Yusuf by his Chinese wife. He is said to have reigned 300 years before the Spanish conquest, to have visited China and have been invested by the Emperor. The Royal genealogy was recorded on a golden tablet that was thrown into the open sea by Sultan Rijal when fleeing from the Spanish in April 1578. The identification of the rulers in the Spanish text has only been possible by carefully examining the peculiar Spanish transliteration of Malay, then cross-referencing them against those given in the Syair Awang Semaun and in the Silsilah Raja-Raja Brunei. These texts taken individually may have led earlier researchers to conclude that they were entirely different individuals. The use of long regnal names is quite obvious when reading those of more recent rulers and by examining the list of approved named for sultans, given in later versions of the Silsilah Raja-Raja Brunei. Indeed, it is quite likely that the actual reign names and styles may have been much longer then we have been able to record here. Als, they may only emerge with the further discovery of contemporary personal seals and letters. The Spanish and Portuguese archives may harbour such undiscovered treasures.
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