CHINA

The Manchu Dynasty

(Ta Ch'ing Ch'ao )

continued from the previous page.
 
STYLES & TITLES:
The Sovereign: The Great Emperor of the Great Ching Dynasty, Son of Heaven, Lord of Ten Thousand Years, Grand Khan of Tartary, with the style of His Imperial Majesty.
Note: Emperors have a personal name, an official reign name (or nien-hao), and a posthumous temple name (or miao-hao).
The principal wife and consort of the Sovereign: Hsien (personal style) Huang Hou, i.e. Empress with the style of Her Imperial Majesty. If there were more than one Empress at any one time, their places of residence were included as part of the title, e.g. Hsi Kung Huang Hou (Empress of the Western Palace), Tung Kung Huang Hou (Empress of the Eastern Palace) or Chung Kung Huang Hou (Empress of the Central Palace).
The junior wives of the Sovereign: in addition to a single Empress, the Emperor was entitled to secondary consorts and concubines. The titles enjoyed by these ladies were, in descending order:
1. Huang Kuei Fei: Imperial Honoured Consort of the first class.
2. Kuei Fei: Honoured Secondary Consort of the second class, first rank.
3. Shu Fei: Pure Secondary Consort of the second class, second rank
4. Te Fei: Virtusous Secondary Consort of the second class, third rank
5. Hsien Fei: Worthy Secondary Consort of the second class, fourth rank.
6. Fei: Consort-in-Ordinary, third rank.
7. Pin: Imperial Concubine, fourth rank.
8. Kuei Jn: Worthy Lady, fifth rank.
9. Ch'ang Tsai: Female Attendant, sixth rank.
10. Ta Ying: Female Attendant, seventh rank.
11. Shih N: Serving Woman.
The mother of the Sovereign: Huang T'ai Hou, i.e. Empress Dowager with the style of Her Imperial Majesty.
The paternal grandmother of the Sovereign: T'ai Huang T'ai Hou, i.e. Grand Empress Dowager with the style of Her Imperial Majesty.
The Heir Apparent: Huang T'ai Tzu, i.e. Imperial Heir Apparent, with the style of His Imperial Highness.
The eldest son of the Heir Apparent, by his principal wife: Huang Ti Sun, i.e. Heir Presumptive, with the style of His Imperial Highness
The other sons and brothers of the Sovereign: Huang Tzu, i.e. Imperial Prince, with the style of His Imperial Highness. When these princes came of age, they received hereditary princedoms, in keeping with their status. There were fourteen ranks, arranged the the following descending order:
1. Ho Sh Ch'in Wang: originally Ho Sh Pei L (from the Manchu, Hosoi=region, locality). Prince of the Blood of the first rank, enjoying the style of His Imperial Highness, with a name or locality (hao) attached to the title and the right to a posthumous name (shi) after death. The usual rank and title conferred on the sons of Emperors by an Empress.
2. To Lo Chn Wang: originally Ho Sh To Lo Pei L "prince of the gift" (from the Manchu, Dolo=gift). Prince of the Blood of the second rank, enjoying the style of His Imperial Highness, with a name or locality (hao) attached to the title and the right to a posthumous name (shi) after death. The usual rank and title conferred on the sons of Emperors by Imperial Consorts.
3. To Lo Pei L: Prince of the Blood of the third rank and enjoying the style of His Highness.
4. Ku Shan Pei Tzu: "Prince of the Banner", or Prince of the Blood of the fourth rank with the style of His Highness.
5. Fng n Chn Kuo Kung: "defender duke". Prince of the Blood of the fifth rank with the style of His Highness.
6. Fng n Fu Kuo Kung: "bulwark duke". Prince of the Blood of sixth rank with the style of His Highness.
7. Pu Ju Pa Fn Chn Kuo Kung: "lesser defender duke not to encroach on the Eight Priviledges". Prince of the Blood of the seventh rank with the style of His Excellency.
8. Pu Ju Pa Fn Fu Kuo Kung: "lesser bulwark duke not to encroach on the Eight Priviledges" Prince of the Blood of the eighth rank with the style of His Excellency.
9. Chn Kuo Chiang Chn: Noble of the Imperial Lineage of the ninth rank, divided into three grades (or Tng).
10. Fu Kuo Chiang Chn: Noble of the Imperial Lineage of the tenth rank, divided into three grades.
11. Fng Kuo Chiang Chn: "supporter-general of the state". Noble of the Imperial Lineage of the eleventh rank, divided into three grades.
12. Fng n Chiang Chn: "general by grace". Noble of the Imperial Lineage of the twelfth rank.
13. Tsung Shih: Imperial clansman. The usual rank for male descendants, in the male line, beyond the twelfth generation. Holders of were entitled to wear an Imperial Yellow Girdle (or Huang T'ai Tzu) denoting their descent from Emperor Hsien Tsu.
14. Chio Lo: collateral relatives of the Imperial clan. Holders were entitled to wear a distinctive Red Girdle (or Hung T'ai Tzu) denoting their descent from the collateral relatives of Emperor Hsien Tsu.
Ranks 1 to 6 carried the right to the eight priveledges (or Pa Fen):
1. to wear the purple button.
2. to wear a three-eyed peacock's feather.
3. to wear embroidered dragon plaque on court robes.
4. to have red painted spears at the gates of their residences.
5. to attach tassels to the accoutrements of their horses.
6. to use purple bridle-reins.
7. to have a servant carry a special teapot.
8. to have a special carpet on which to seat themselves.
The Heirs Apparent to the senior princedoms were styled as follows:
1. Shih Tzu: for the heir apparent of a Prince of the Blood of the first rank.
2. Chang Tzu: for the heir apparent of a Prince of the Blood of the second rank.
The consorts and concubines of the Princes of the Blood were styled as follows:
1. Fu Chin: for the Princess Consort of a Prince of the Blood of the first or second rank.
2. Fu Jen: for the Princess Consort of a Prince of the Blood of the third or fourth rank.
3. Ts'e Fu Chin: for the concubine of a Prince of the Blood of the first or second rank.
The usual convention was for each successive generation to succeed to the princedom, one rank below that of the predecessor in the title. The heir of a Pei L succeeded his father but in the rank of Pei Tzu. Exceptions to this rule were the heads of the "Eight Great Princely Houses" (Pa Ta Chia). Styled "Iron-Capped Princes" (T'ieh Mao Tzu Wang), they held rank by Right of Perpetual Inheritance (Shih Hssi Wang T'i) and their heirs succeeded to the same rank as their predecessors. These were:
1. The head of the houses of Li, Yui, Y, Su, Chng and Chuang, were descended from the younger brothers of Emperors T'ien-ming (Nurhachi) and T'ien-tsung (Abahai). They ranked as Ho Sh Ch'in Wang: Princes of the first rank, with the style of His Imperial Highness.
2. The head of the house of Yi, descended from Prince Yi-Hsieng [Hsien], 1st Prince Yi, the twenty-second son of Emperor Kang-hsi also ranked as Ho Sh Ch'in Wang: Princes of the first rank, with the style of His Imperial Highness.
3. The head of the houses of Shun-chng, and K'o-chi'in ranked as To Lo Chn Wang: Princes of the second rank, with the style of His Imperial Highness.
The daughters of the Sovereign: Kung Chu, i.e. Princess, with the style of Her Imperial Highness. The recording of the personal names of princesses ceased after the move of the Imperial Court to Peking. Thereafter, Princesses were styled first Princess, second Princess, third Princess, etc. according to their dates of birth. The daughters of Emperors and Imperial princes of the first six ranks also received special ranks at the time of their betrothal ceremony. Their husbands were known as E Fu (Imperial Son-in-Law) and received similar titles to their wives. These titles were inheritable by one son, and in perpetuity amongst his male line descendants.
The daughters of an Emperor, by an Empress received the rank of Ku Lun Kung Chu (State Princess), equal to a Princedom of the first rank. The husband of a State Princess received the title of Ku Lun E Fu.
The daughters of an Emperor, by an Imperial Consort received the rank of Ho Sh Kung Chu, equal to a princedom of the second rank. Her husband received the title of Ho Sh E Fu.
The nine ranks for Princesses and their husbands, in descending order, were as follows:
1. Ku Lun Kung Chu = Ku Lun E Fu.
2. Ho Sh Kung Chu = Ho Sh E Fu.
3. To Lo Kung Chu = To Lo E Fu.
4. Ku Shan Kung Chu = Ku Shan E Fu.
5. Chn Chu Kung Chu = Chn Chu E Fu.
6. Hsien Chu Kung Chu = Hsien Chu E Fu.
7. Chn Chn Kung Chu = Chn Chn E Fu.
8. Hsien Chn Kung Chu = Hsien Chn E Fu.
9. Hsieng Chn Kung Chu = Hsieng Chn E Fu.
The daughters of an Emperor usually received appointments to ranks 1 to 4. Daughters of Princes of the Blood were styled as follows:
1. Chn Chu Kung Chu (or Ho She Ko Ko): for the daughters of a Prince of the Blood of the first rank.
2. Hsien Chu Kung Chu (or To Lo Ko Ko): for the daughters of a Prince of the Blood of the second rank.
3. Chn Chn Kung Chu (or also To Lo Ko Ko): for the daughters of a Prince of the Blood of the third rank.
4. Hsien Chn Kung Chu or (Ku Shan Ko Ko): for the daughters of a Prince of the Blood of the fourth rank.
5. Hsieng Chn Kung Chu (or Fng n Ko Ko): for the daughters of a Prince of the Blood of the fifth or sixth rank.
6. Tsung N: for the daughters of a Prince of the Blood below the sixth rank.
Note: the daughters of Nurchachi Khan were simply styled Ko Ko: Lady.

The following summary of the titles and styles held by the immediate relatives of the Princes of the Blood, may prove useful to the general reader.
1. Prince of the Blood of the first rank (Ho Sh Ch'in Wang):
Wife: Fu Chin, usually translated as Princess Consort.
Concubine, junior consort: Ts'e Fu Chin, translated as Princely Lady, of whom 4 were permitted.
Heir Apparent: Prince (Ch'in Wang Shih Tzu).
Successor (with the right of perpetual inheritance): Prince of the Blood of the first rank (Ho Sh Ch'in Wang).
Successor (without the right of perpetual inheritance): Prince of the Blood of the second rank (To Lo Chn Wang).
Sons by wives (with the right of perpetual inheritance): Prince of the Blood of the seventh rank (Pu Ju Pa Fn Chn Kuo Kung).
Sons by wives (without the right of perpetual inheritance): Prince of the Blood of the eighth rank (Pu Ju Pa Fn Fu Kuo Kung).
Sons by concubines: Noble of the Imperial Lineage of the ninth rank (Chn Kuo Chiang Chn), second grade.
Adopted son and successor: Noble of the Imperial Lineage of the ninth rank (Chn Kuo Chiang Chn), third grade.
Daughters by wives: Princess (Chn Chu Kung Chu or Ho She Ko Ko).
2. Prince of the Blood of the second rank (To Lo Chn Wang):
Wife: Fu Chin, usually translated as Princess Consort.
Concubine, junior consort: Ts'e Fu Chin, translated as Princely Lady, of whom 4 were permitted.
Heir Apparent: Prince (Chn Wang Chang Tzu).
Successor (with the right of perpetual inheritance): Prince of the Blood of the second rank (To Lo Chn Wang).
Successor (without the right of perpetual inheritance): Prince of the Blood of the third rank (To Lo Pei L).
Sons by wives: Noble of the Imperial Lineage of the ninth rank (Chn Kuo Chiang Chn), first grade.
Sons by concubines: Noble of the Imperial Lineage of the ninth rank (Chn Kuo Chiang Chn), third grade.
Adopted son and successor: Noble of the Imperial Lineage of the eleventh rank (Fng Kuo Chiang Chn), third grade.
Daughters by wives: Princess (Hsien Chu Kung Chu or To Lo Ko Ko).
3. Prince of the Blood of the third rank (To Lo Pei L):
Wife: Fu Jen, usually translated as Lady Consort.
Concubine, junior consort: Ts'e Fu Jen.
Successor: Prince of the Blood of the fourth rank (Ku Shan Pei Tzu).
Sons by wives: Noble of the Imperial Lineage of the ninth rank (Chn Kuo Chiang Chn), second grade.
Sons by concubines: Noble of the Imperial Lineage of the tenth rank (Fu Kuo Chiang Chn), first grade.
Adopted son and successor: Noble of the Imperial Lineage of the twelfth rank (Fng n Chiang Chn).
Daughters by wives: Princess (Chn Chn Kung Chu or also To Lo Ko Ko).
4. Prince of the Blood of the fourth rank (Ku Shan Pei Tzu):
Wife: Fu Jen, usually translated as Lady Consort.
Concubine, junior consort: Ts'e Fu Jen.
Successor: Prince of the Blood of the fifth rank (Fng n Chn Kuo Kung).
Sons by wives: Noble of the Imperial Lineage of the ninth rank (Chn Kuo Chiang Chn), second grade.
Sons by concubines: Noble of the Imperial Lineage of the tenth rank (Fu Kuo Chiang Chn), second grade.
Adopted son and successor: Noble of the Imperial Lineage of the twelfth rank (Fng n Chiang Chn).
Daughters by wives: Princess (Hsien Chn Kung Chu or Ku Shan Ko Ko).
5. Prince of the Blood of the fifth rank (Fng n Chn Kuo Kung):
Successor: Prince of the Blood of sixth (Fng n Fu Kuo Kung).
Sons by wives: Noble of the Imperial Lineage of the tenth rank (Fu Kuo Chiang Chn), first grade.
Sons by concubines: Noble of the Imperial Lineage of the tenth rank (Fu Kuo Chiang Chn), second grade.
Adopted son and successor: Imperial clansman (Tsung Shih).
Daughters by wives: Princess (Hsieng Chn Kung Chu or Fng n Ko Ko).
6. Prince of the Blood of sixth (Fng n Fu Kuo Kung):
Successor: Prince of the Blood of the seventh rank (Pu Ju Pa Fn Chn Kuo Kung).
Sons by wives: Noble of the Imperial Lineage of the tenth rank (Fu Kuo Chiang Chn), second grade.
Sons by concubines: Noble of the Imperial Lineage of the eleventh rank (Fng Kuo Chiang Chn), first grade.
Adopted son and successor: Imperial clansman (Tsung Shih).
Daughters by wives: Princess (Hsieng Chn Kung Chu or Fng n Ko Ko).
7. Prince of the Blood of the seventh rank (Pu Ju Pa Fn Chn Kuo Kung):
Successor: Prince of the Blood of the eighth rank (Pu Ju Pa Fn Fu Kuo Kung).
Sons by wives: Noble of the Imperial Lineage of the tenth rank (Fu Kuo Chiang Chn), third grade.
Sons by concubines: Imperial clansman (Tsung Shih).
Adopted son and successor: Imperial clansman (Tsung Shih).
Daughters: Imperial clanswoman (Tsung N).
8. Prince of the Blood of the eighth rank (Pu Ju Pa Fn Fu Kuo Kung):
Successor: Noble of the Imperial Lineage of the ninth rank (Chn Kuo Chiang Chn), third grade.
Sons by wives: Noble of the Imperial Lineage of the tenth rank (Fu Kuo Chiang Chn), third grade.
Sons by concubines: Imperial clansman (Tsung Shih).
Adopted son and successor: Imperial clansman (Tsung Shih).
Daughters: Imperial clanswoman (Tsung N).
9. Noble of the Imperial Lineage of the ninth rank (Chn Kuo Chiang Chn), first, second and third grades (or Tng):
Successor: Noble of the Imperial Lineage of the tenth rank (Fu Kuo Chiang Chn), first, second and third grades.
Sons by wives: Noble of the Imperial Lineage of the tenth rank (Fu Kuo Chiang Chn), third grade.
Sons by concubines: Imperial clansman (Tsung Shih).
Adopted son and successor: Imperial clansman (Tsung Shih).
Daughters: Imperial clanswoman (Tsung N).
10. Noble of the Imperial Lineage of the tenth rank (Fu Kuo Chiang Chn), first, second and third grades:
Successor: Noble of the Imperial Lineage of the eleventh rank (Fng Kuo Chiang Chn), first, second and third grades.
Sons by wives: Noble of the Imperial Lineage of the eleventh rank (Fng Kuo Chiang Chn), third grade.
Sons by concubines: Imperial clansman (Tsung Shih).
Adopted son and successor: Imperial clansman (Tsung Shih).
Daughters: Imperial clanswoman (Tsung N).
11. Noble of the Imperial Lineage of the eleventh rank (Fng Kuo Chiang Chn), first, second and third grades.
Successor: Noble of the Imperial Lineage of the twelfth rank (Fng n Chiang Chn).
Sons by wives: Noble of the Imperial Lineage of the twelfth rank (Fng n Chiang Chn).
Sons by concubines: Imperial clansman (Tsung Shih).
Adopted son and successor: Imperial clansman (Tsung Shih).
Daughters: Imperial clanswoman (Tsung N).
12. Noble of the Imperial Lineage of the twelfth rank (Fng n Chiang Chn):
Successor: Noble of the Imperial Lineage of the twelfth rank (Fng n Chiang Chn).
Sons: Imperial clansman (Tsung Shih).
Daughters: Imperial clanswoman (Tsung N).
13. Imperial clansman (Tsung Shih):
Successor: Imperial clansman (Tsung Shih).
Sons: Imperial clansman (Tsung Shih).
Daughters: Imperial clanswoman (Tsung N).
14. Collateral relatives of the Imperial clan (Chio Lo). Holders were entitled to wear a distinctive Red Girdle

Hereditary titles of Nobility, or Hereditary Ranks (Cheh Yin or Shih Cheh): conferred on subjects and collateral members of the Imperial clan, and divided into ten ranks, according to the following descending order:
1. Yen Shng Kung: sacred Prince, only conferred on the posterity of Confucius.
2. Kung, divided into three classes (or Tng): translated as Duke, but more correctly Prince.
3. Hou, divided into three classes: translated as Marquis.
4. Po, divided into three classes: translated as Earl
5. Tzu, divided into three classes: translated as Viscount.
6. Nan, divided into three classes: translated as Baron.
7. Ch'ing Ch'e Tu Y.
8. Ch'i Tu Y.
9. Yn Ch'i Y.
10. n Ch'i Y.
The first three ranks were classed as "Eminent Ranks" (or Ch'ao P'in) and were accompanied by honorific epiphets (or Chia Ming). All, except the ninth grade, were heritable for a specific number of generations, ranging from twenty-six generations for a first class Kung to one generation for a Yn Ch'i Y. In certain instances, some titles were held by Right of Perpetual Inheritance (or Shih Hssi Wang T'i).

Additional ranks and titles of honour existed, for military and civil services, for learning, feminine merit, and other services. Included amongst the military titles, was that of Pa T'u Lu (B'at'uru in Manchu, or Baghadur or Bahadur in Mongol). The title, meaning "brave", was solely conferred for active service in the field and was accompanied by an honorific epithet (e.g. I Ni Yung Pa T'u Lu) and accompanied by the right to wear the peacock feather.
 
MANCHU 1 MANCHU 2 MANCHU 3 MANCHU 4 MANCHU 5
MANCHU 6 MANCHU 7 MANCHU 8 MANCHU 9 MANCHU 10
MANCHU 11 MANCHU 12 MANCHU 13 MANCHU 14 MANCHU 15
MANCHU 16 MANCHUKUO ORDERS & DECORATIONS GLOSSARY
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