PERSIA

GLOSSARY

afkham: great in rank and honour.
aftab: the sun.
Aqdas: "most sacred"
agha: master, respected. A title junior to Beg.
Aghayan: tribal nobility.
aghdi (wife): the term for one of the four (permanent) wives, permitted by the laws of Islam.
Ahli-i-Hiraf: 'men of crafts', i.e. those skilled in the crafts and belonging to guilds.
Ahli-i-'Ilm: 'men of sacred knowledge', i.e. high ranking religeous leaders.
Ahli-i-Kasb: 'men pf trade', i.e. merchants and tradespeople.
Ahli-i-Qalam: 'men of the pen', i.e. high ranking civil servants and administrators.
Ahli-i-Shamshir: 'men of the sword', i.e. high ranking military officers.
ain: eye, essence, or source.
akram: magnificent, merciful.
ala: high in rank and dignity.
Ala Hazrat: 'His High Majesty', translated as His Imperial Majesty in English.
Ala Hazrat-i-Humayun: 'His High August Majesty', the style of the Shahanshah, translated as His Imperial Majesty in English.
alam: universe.
'Ali Jah: the style borne by officials of the fifth rank, including Colonels in the army and middle ranking civil servants (kalantars and kadkudas).
'Ali Jah Muqarrab: the style borne by those holding high office, both civil and military, such as Generals.
'Ali Qadir: the style borne by the lowest rank, masters of guilds, etc.
'Ali Sha'an: the style borne by officials of the sixth rank, including Captains and Lieutenants in the army, and lowe level civil servants (secretaries and accountants).
Aliya Hazrat: Her Majesty, the style of the consort of the Shahanshah.
alp: strong.
amin: faithful.
Amir: title of Arabic origin meaning prince or commander.
Amir-i-Il: the designation for the head of a tribe.
Amir-i-Nuyan: Lieutenant-General.
Amir Panj: 'commander of 5,000', i.e. Brigadier-General.
Amir-i-Tuman: 'commander of 10,000', i.e. Major-General.
Amir ul-Umara: 'Amir of Amirs' or 'Commander of Commanders', i.e. supreme commander.
Amirzada: son of a prince.
amnieh: roadguard.
ara: ornament.
arfa: high, sublime, or eminent.
arg: citadel.
asaf: wise (after King Soloman's principal minister).
ashraf: provincial aristocrat.
Atabeg: Turkoman title, senior to Khan.
Atabeg-i-'Azam: title sometimes conferred on particularly distinguished prime ministers, while holding office. The highest title attainable by a commoner.
awqaf: religeous endowments.
ayan: notable.
ayatullah: high-ranking cleric.
'azam (or a'azam): supreme.
aziz: beloved.
azud: supporter.
badi: wonderful.
baha: ornament, beauty.
bahadur: brave, bold, honourable.
banu: lady.
Beg (or bey): Turkoman title for lord.
Beglerbegi: Turkoman title for lord of lords i.e. governor-general.
Begum: married lady, feminine of Beg.
behjat: gladness.
burhan: proof, demonstration.
darbar: court.
darbari: courtiers.
dabir: writer.
din: faith, religion.
fakhr: glory.
fallahin: petty landholder.
farman (or firman): royal command or order.
Farman Farma: 'Commander of Commands', i.e. issuer of commands or orders. A title of honour conferred on important statesmen and ministers, for life.
fath: victory.
Farmandah-i-kil-i-quva: Commander-in-Chief
Galin Khanum: the title accorded to the principal noble wife of a Qajar.
Ghulam Rikabi: Imperial Bodyguard.
Hajji: a gentleman who has made the pilgrimage to mecca.
Hajjia (or hajieh): a lady who has made the pilgrimage to mecca.
hajib: chamberlain.
hakim: physician, a term also used for minor governors.
Hakimbashi: Surgeon-General, or more correctly Physician-General.
hamdan: intimate companion.
Hazrat-i-Aqdas: the style enjoyed by the grandsons of a Sovereign, in the male line, and translated as His Royal Highness.
Hazrat-i-Ajal: His Exalted Highness.
Hazrat-i-'Aliya: the style enjoyed by the great-granddaughters of a Sovereign, in the male line, and translated as Her Highness. Sometimes also accorded to granddaughters of a Sovereign, in the female line.
Hazrat-i-'Aliya A'aliya: the style enjoyed by the daughters of a sovereign, translated as Her Imperial Highness.
Hazrat-i-'Aliya Aqdas: the style enjoyed by the granddaughters of a Sovereign, in the male line, and translated as Her Royal Highness.
Hazrat-i-Vala: the style enjoyed by the great-grandsons of a Sovereign, in the male line, and translated as His Highness. Sometimes also accorded to Imperial sons-in-law, grandsons of a Sovereign in the female line, and to the heads of the most distinguished noble houses.
Hazrat-i-Vala Aqdas: the style enjoyed by the sons of a sovereign, translated as His Imperial Highness.
hishmat: magnificence.
hisam (or husam): sharp sword.
hujjat: demonstrator.
humayun: august, translated as Imperial in English.
iftikhar: distinction.
ihtisham: pomp.
ijlal: illustrious.
iqbal: fortunate.
iktadir: power, authority.
il: tribe.
Ilbeggi: lord of the tribe, junior to Ilkhani.
Ilkhani: head of a tribe or sept.
imad: pillar, support.
Imam: religious leader.
Imam Jum'a: the title of the highest ranking religious official in charge of the friday prayers at the principal mosque.
intesar: conquerer.
intizam: order, regularity.
ismat: chastity.
i'timad: confidance.
itizad: aid, help.
izz: glory, dignity.
jahan: world.
Jahanbani: guardian of the world.
jamal: grace.
jalal: glory, dignity.
Janab: Excellency, the style borne by senior Ministers of State, Governors-General, and the C-in-C of the armed forces.
Janab-i-Ashraf: style borne by prime ministers and translated as His Serene Highness.
kaimmaqam: administrator.
Kalantar: Chief Magistrate.
Khan: title of a nobleman, higher than Beg (or bey) and usually used after the given name.
Khanevada-i-Sultanat: Royal Family.
Khanum: title of a noblewoman, feminine of Khan.
khilat: robe of honour, usually bestowed when a person is appointed to high office or granted a title of honour.
khurshid: the sun.
kulah (or kolah): cap.
lashkar: army.
Lashkar Narvis Bashi: Muster-Master General of the Army.
Mahd-i-'Aliya: "the sublime cradle", the title of the first lady in the land before the Pahlavi era.
majid: splendour, nobility.
Majlis: council, parliament.
Majlis-i-Vuzara: Council of Ministers.
makhsus: special, intimate.
Malik: Arabic term for King.
Malik ul-Shu'ara: 'King of the Poets',, i.e. poet laureate.
Malik ul-Tujjar
: 'King of the Merchants', an office held by the head of the merchant community in each town or city.
Malika: Queen, a term of Arabic origin used in Persia as the title for queens consort. Frequently also used as part of a lady's name, eg. Malika-i-Jahan or Queen of the World.
Mallakin: major landholder.
mamaluk: kingdoms, plural of mulk.
mamlikat: country.
masur: victorious.
masud: fortunate, happy.
Mir: short form for amir or mirza.
Mirakhor: Master of the Horse.
Mirza: this term has two meanings. 1. when placed before a personal name the meaning is "learned" or "scribe". 2. when placed after the personal name the meaning is prince, or more correctly son of a prince, a short-form for Amirzada.
Monajjambashi: Astronomer Royal.
mujtahid: high-ranking theologian.
mulk (or molk): kingdom.
Mullabashi: Imperial Tutor.
Mullah: low ranking cleric.
mustawfi: accountant.
Mustawfi ul-Mamaluk: 'accountant of the kingdim' i.e. Minister for
Finance.
muayyid: aider, collaborator.
muayyir: assayer.
muaven: assistant.
mu'azzam: honoured, supreme.
mubashir: overseer, agent.
mudir: administrator.
muhandis: mathematician or engineer.
muin: assistant.
Mu'in Na'ib: 2nd-lieutenant.
mu'izz: glorious, honoured.
mukhbir: giver of news.
Mullabashi: chief of clerics.
mumtahin: examiner, skillful.
munazam: order, arrangement.
mumtakhab: chosen.
muntasir: conquerer.
munt'azam: ordered, arranged.
mushavar: counsellor.
mushir (or mushar): counsellor.
mustashir (or mustashar): consulted.
mustaufi: receiver of revenues.
mutamid: trustworthy, faithful.
mutamin: entrusted.
mutashim: powerful, great.
muzaffar: conquerer.
nadim: intimate friend.
Nai'b: Lieutenant
Nai'b Sarhang: Lieutenant Colonel.
Nai'b us-Sultana: 'Lieutenant of the Realm', or Viceroy. Sometimes treated as a rank or office and sometimes merely a title of honour.
nasr: assistence.
Nawab: a style enjoyed by senior princes and distinguished noblemen, often imperfectly translated as Highness, but actually without any European equivalent. Usually found together with titles of honour (e.g. Nawab-i Amin ul-Mulk), but, unlike India or Afghanistan, hardly ever used as a title in translated texts.
nayyar: luminous, shining.
nazim: regulator.
nazm: order, arrangement.
nazir: defender.
nizam: order, arrangement, regulator, army.
nuzrat: victory.
Padshah: Emperor.
qamar: moon.
qavam: support.
qazan: treasurer.
qazi: judge.
Qibla-yi 'Alam: 'Pivot of the Universe'.
rifa'at: sublimity, magnificense.
ruaya: subjects.
rukn: pillar.
sa'ad: felicity, prosperity.
sadiq: sincere friend, truthful.
saham: archer.
sahib: lord.
Sahib-i-Qiran: 'Lord of the Auspicious Conjunction' (of planets).
said: fortunate.
saif: sword.
sakat: trusty, worthy of confidence.
salar: leader, commander.
samsam: unbending sword.
sani: artist.
saraj: lamp.
Sardar: General, i.e. full general.
Sardar-i-'Azam: a high title of honour bestowed on distinguished Prime Ministers and enjoyed while holding office. Carried precedence before all members of the Imperial family, after the Shah and the Heir Apparent.
Sarhang: Colonel.
Sartip (also see Amir Panj): Brigadier.
Sayyid: a descendant of prophet muhammad, in the male line.
shahab: flame.
Shahanshah: King of Kings.
Shahdokht: King's daughter, the title of a Princess of the Pahlavi dynasty.
Shahpur: King's son, the title of a Prince of the Pahlavi dynasty.
Shahzada: shah's son, translated as prince.
Shahzadi: shah's daughter, translated as princess.
Shahzadigan: Head of the the royal princes.
Shaikh ul-Islam: the highest religious official and principal judge in the provincial capitals.
shaji: brave, intrepid.
Shakhs-i-Awwal: "the first person", the highest ranking official in the empire. A rank frequently, but not necesassarily, conferred on the incumbant Prime Minister.
shams: the sun.
shariat: justice, equity; islamic law.
shaukat: glory.
shir: lion.
shua: splendour.
shuja: brave, intrepid.
sidk: truth.
sigheh (wife): temporary wife.
Sipah Salar: commander-in-chief.
Sultan: King, ruler. Also used for the military rank of captain.
Sultana (or saltaneh): kingdom.
Sultanat (or saltanat): kingdoms.
taj: crown.
taulia: superintendency of the affairs of a shrine or mosque.
temsal: portrait.
tujjar: merchant.
tuyuldar: holder of a large fief.
ud-Daula (or dowleh): of the state.
ul-Mamaluk: of the kingdoms, plural of ul-mulk.
ul-Mulk (or molk): of the kingdom.
ul-Mu'menin: of the faithful.
us-Sultan (or soltan): of the King, or of the ruler
us-Sultana (or saltaneh): of the realm.
us-Sultanat (or saltanat): of the realms.
vakil: agent, deputy.
Vakilbashi: Sergeant Major.
Vala Hazrat-i-Humayun: 'His August Imperial Highness', the style enjoyed by  the Heir Apparent.
Vali: governor, ruler.
Vazir: minister.
Vazir-i-Daftar: minister for finance.
Vazir-i-Lashkar: minister for war.
Yawar: Major.
yamin: right hand.
zafir: conquerer.
zahir: supporter.
zaman: age.
zarrin: golden.
zergham: lion.
zia: splendour.
zill: shadow (Zillu'llah=Shadow of God, Zill us-Sultan=shadow of the king).
zoka: intelligence.
zurra': farmers.

END.

QAJAR TITLES PERSIA

Copyrightę Christopher Buyers, August 2000 - February 2009