Copyright©Prince Rafet Bey

The Husainid Dynasty

continued from the previous page.
Copyright©Christopher Buyers
Agha: title of Turkish origin and rank below Bey, loosely translated as commander.
'Alai Amin: field officer, equivalent to Major.
Amin: 'trusted', i.e. an Ottoman officer equivalent to ' commissioner' and appointed to administer a department, function or revenue source. Also used for the heads of guilds and professional bodies.
Amin al-Tarsakhana: 'Master of the Workshop', the principal officer in charge of the naval arsenals, workshops and dockyard.
Amin dar as-Sikka: 'Master of the Mint.
Amir (or Emir): Arabic term meaning Commander or Prince.
Amir al-'Alai (or 'Emir Alaia): 'commander of a regiment', military rank equivalent to Colonel.
Amir al-Liva (or 'Emir Lioua): 'commander of a banner', brigade commander, equivalent to Major-General.
Amir al-'Umara (or 'Emir El Oumara): 'commander of commanders', divisional commander, equivalent to Lieutenant-General.
Baît al-Bellar: 'Hall of Mirrors', one of the principal audience halls within the Palace of Bardo.
Baît al-Basha: 'Hall of the Pasha', one of the principal audience halls within the Palace of Bardo.
Baît al-Kabira: The Great Hall', the principal throne room of the Palace of Bardo.
Baît al-Mahkama: 'Hall of Justice', within the Palace of Bardo.
Bash: chief, principal, head.
Bash Kasaq: Master of the Robes.
Bash Khatib: Chief Secretary, a once powerful office often exercising the functions of a Home Minister, especially during the 18th and 19th centuries. Junior in rank to Sahib al-Taba'a and senior to Khaznadar.
Bash Mamluk: chief of the male white slaves.
Basha: Arabic for Pasha.
Bay'a: oath of allegiance acknowledging the accession of a new Bey.
Bay'a khasa: the private ceremony where the oath of allegiance is taken to the new Bey immediately on the death of the previous incumbent, by close male relatives, ministers and the principal grandees.
Bay'a 'amma: the formal public ceremony where the new Bey is acknowledged, usually on the day after his accession and including virtually all officials, tribal and religious leaders, delegates from the provinces, etc. Frequently celebrated over a period of days or weeks.
Bey: title of Turkish origin and lower in rank to that of Pasha. Used in Tunis as part of the territorial title of the ruler, and also as a title by all male members of the family.
Bey al-Kursi: 'Bey of the Throne', a term equivalent to reigning prince.

Bey al-Mahalla
: 'Bey of the Camp', title used for the next most senior member of the Beylical family after the reigning Bey, the Heir Apparent to the throne.
Bey al-Taula: 'Bey of the Table', the title of the Heir Presumptive, the eldest prince of the Beylical family who enjoyed precedence immediately after the Bey al-Mahalla.
Beya: title of the principal consort of the Bey, sometimes also used for certain princesses, after their given names.
Beylerbeyi (or Beglerbegi): 'Lord of Lords'. An office signifying rule over a great Ottoman province, equivalent to Governor-General. The rank enjoyed by the ruler of Tunisia within the empire.
Bimbashi (or Bin Bashi): field officer, junior in rank to Kaimmakam and equivalent to Major Commandant.
Biriniji-Bey: 'First Lord', or 'First Prince', an alternative Turkish term for the Heir Presumptive.
Daulat: state. Copyright©Christopher Buyers
Daulatli: alternative title for Dey.
Dey: Ottoman title for the officer in charge of Tunis.
Ferik: Turkish military rank, equivalent to Lieutenant-General.
Ifriqiya: the Turkish province in North Africa comprising Tunis, Carthage, Constantine and Oran.
Iljiya: female white slave, i.e. odalisque.
Janissaries: Turkish infantry bodyguard.
Jâryia: slave.
Jund: Janissaries.

: deputy, lieutenant, or second-in-command.
Kaid: provincial governor.
Kaid al-Birka: governor of the slave market.
Kaidat: province.
Kaimmakam (or Kaïmakam): battalion commander, equivalent to Lieutenant-Colonel.
Kapi Kethüdasi (or Kapi Kahiya): the representative of the Bey at the Imperial Court in Istanbul.
Khalifa: deputy Kaid.
Khaznadar: Treasurer, traditional ministerial, post junior in rank to Bash Khatib and Sahib al-Taba'a.
Khabsha: bejewelled and decorated official insignia worn on the front of the Shéshia by the reigning Bey; Coat of Arms
Khabshat al-Beyat: Coat of Arms of the Beylical Dynasty.
Khoja: secretary in the Turkish language; also sometimes a title for administrative officers.
Kiyada: leadership.
Kursi: throne.
Lalla: 'Lady', title borne by female members of the Beylical family and also certain women of gentle birth.
Lalla Likbira: a title sometimes used for the eldest daughter of the Bey.
Lawate: plural of Lalla.
Mahalla: 'camp', i.e. a reference to the military expedition sent into the interior of the country to conduct the business of government, collect taxes, receive petitions, dispense justice, etc.
Majlis: council, usually one concerned with national religious or state affairs.
Majlis al-Kabir: Grand Council (of State).
Majlis al-Khas: Privy Council.
Majlis al-Shari: Religious Council.
Mamlaka: kingdom.
Mamluk (plural mamalik): male white slave, usually gained by conquest or raids on Christian territories, converted to Islam and usually raised within the royal palace or the household of a grandee.
Mazariqiya: lancers.
Mîr: Turkish corruption of the Arabic Amir, commander.
Mîralai: Turkish corruption of Amir al-Alai, equivalent to Colonel.
Mîrliva: Turkish corruption of Amir al-Liva, equivalent to Major-General.
Mîrmîran: Turkish corruption of Amir ul-'Umara, equivalent to Lieutenant-General.
Mulazim (or Mlazem): a junior military rank, equivalent to Lieutenant.
Mushir: the highest military rank in the army, equivalent to Field Marshal. Originally conferred by the Ottoman Sultan on the reigning Bey, in recognition of the latter's role as supreme commander of the armed forces of a first class province.
Nishan (or Wissam in Arabic): an order of chivalry or decoration of honour.
Padshah: Supreme King, or Emperor, a title employed for the Ottoman sovereign.
Pasha (or Basha in Arabic): title of Turkish origin, usually granted to the head of the Beylical family, retained after the French protectorate.
Sagh Kolaghassi: military officer junior in rank to Bimbashi and equivalent to Adjutant Major.
Sahib al-Mamlakat al-Tunussia: Lord (or Possessor) of the Kingdom of Tunisia, the principle territorial title of the ruler.
Sahib al-Taba'a (or Saheb Ettabâa): 'Lord of the Seal', i.e. Lord Privy Seal, a traditional minister of state senior in rank to the Bash Khatib and Khaznadar.
Sahib al-Ma'ali (or Saheb El Ma'ali): 'Sublime Lord', a style used for Viziers and equated to 'His Excellency'.
Sahib ud-Daula (or Saheb Ed Daoula): 'Lord of the State', a style used for the Grand Vizier and equated to 'His Excellency'.

Sahn al-Burj
: 'Court of the Fort', the principal audience chamber within the Palace of Bardo, used for investitures until 1860.
Saif al-Islam: sword of the faith.
Sayyiduna wa Maulana: 'Our Lord and Master', a style employed for the ruling Bey.
Shaikh al-Balad: Mayor of a town or village.
Shaikh al-Madina: Lord Mayor of the City of Tunis.
Shéshia: the red fez-like cap, usually worn by the reigning Bey adorned with Khabsha, together with his gala uniform.
Si: a title ranking below Sidi, used for court officials, military officers and civil servants, religious dignitaries, learned men, etc.
Sidi: Lord, title for all male members of the Beylical family, and also for some senior Ministers of State, high ranking court and religious dignitaries.
Sidna: 'Our Lord', Tunisian local corruption of Sayyiduna, and a style of address used for the ruling Bey.
Sipahis (or spahis): mounted tribal soldiers, sepoys.
Sultan as-Sultanat: 'Sultan of Sultans', ruler of rulers. A term employed for the Ottoman Sovereign.
Suq al-Birka: slave market.
Turba (plural Turbat): mausoleum.
Turba al-Bashiya: 'Mausoleum of the Pasha', built by Ali I, for himself and his immediate family and located in the Qashashin district of Tunis.

al-Bey: 'Mausoleum of the Beys'. The last and largest (the al-Kabir or Great) Beylical mausoleum located in the Madina of Tunis and divided into several sections for rulers, princes, princesses and distinguished statesmen. Turbat Sidi Kasim as-Sababti: 'Mausoleum of Sidi Kasim as-Sababti', used as the first mausoleum of the Beylical family.
'Umm al-Bashawat: 'Mother of Pashas'.
'Umm al-Muluk: 'Mother of Kings'. Copyright©Christopher Buyers
Wali Ahad (or Ouali el-'Ahad): Heir Apparent.
Wazir: Vizier, i.e. Minister of State.
Wazir al-Akbar (or El Ouzir El Kébir): 'Great Minister', i.e. Grand Vizier, Chief Minister or Prime Minister.
Wazir al-'Amala (or El Ouzir El Amala): Minister for the Interior.
Wazir al-Bahr (or El Ouzir El Bahr): Minister for the Navy or Minister for Marine.

Wazir al-Harb
(or El Ouzir El Harb): Minister for the Army or Minister for War.
Wazir al-Istishara (or El Ouzir El Istichara): Minister-Counsellor.
Wazir al-Qalam: Minister of the Pen.
Wazir ud-Daula (or El Ouzir El Dawla): Minister of State.
Wazir us-Shura (or El Ouzir Ech Choura): Privy Counsellor.
Wissam (or Nishan in Turkish): an order of chivalry or decoration of honour.
Yuzbashi (or Youzbachi): military officer junior in rank to Sagh Kolaghassi and equivalent to Captain.
Zill-u'llah: Shadow of God.
Zuwawa: 'Zouaves', an Arab marshal tribe from the Kabylia region who formed a special brigade within the Beylical army.
Copyright©Christopher Buyers
Copyright©Christopher Buyers
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Copyright©Christopher Buyers

Copyright©Christopher Buyers, August 2000 - March 2013